Anna Mary Robertson ("Grandma") Moses

Anna Mary Robertson was born on September 7, 1860, in Greenwich, a small community in upstate New York about thirty miles northwest of Bennington, Vermont. Her father, Russell King Robertson, was a farmer and also operated a flax mill. While Anna Mary's five brothers helped their father at the mill and on the farm, she and her four sisters were taught to master a variety of domestic duties. At the tender age of twelve, Anna Mary went to work as a "hired girl" on a neighboring farm, helping a wealthier family with the household chores. She was to pursue this sort of work for the next fifteen years until, at the age of 27, she met a "hired man," Thomas Salmon Moses, whom she married.


The year was 1887, and Thomas had been told that the Reconstruction-era South was a land of opportunity for Yankees such as himself. Within hours of their wedding, the couple was on a train headed for North Carolina, where Thomas had secured a job managing a horse ranch. However, he and his bride never made it beyond Staunton, Virginia. Here they stopped for the night and were persuaded to take over as tenants on a local farm. Anna Mary immediately fell in love with the beautiful Shenandoah Valley--her chilly New York State home (albeit mountainous) would forever after seem a "swamp" by comparison. Life was not always easy, though. Anna Mary, who believed in pulling her weight, bought a cow with her own savings and supplemented the family income by churning butter. Later, when times were tough, she made and sold potato chips. She gave birth to ten children, of whom only five survived infancy. Still, the family prospered, eventually earning enough to buy their own farm.


Anna Mary Moses, known by then as "Mother Moses" to many of her neighbors, would happily have spent the rest of her life in Virginia, but Thomas was homesick. In 1905, he persuaded his wife to return North. "I don't think a bit has changed since we left," Anna Mary commented, "the gates are hanging on one hinge since I went away." She and Thomas bought a farm in Eagle Bridge, not far from her birthplace. They named it "Mount Nebo"--prophetically, after the Biblical mountain where Moses disappeared. It was on this farm, in 1927, that Thomas Moses died of a heart attack.


Anna Moses was not one to sit idle. Though all her children were now grown, there was still plenty of work to be done on the farm. Later she would joke, "If I didn't start painting, I would have raised chickens." Or, upon further reflection, "I would rent a room in the city some place and give pancake suppers." In 1932, Moses went to Bennington to take care of her daughter Anna, who was suffering from tuberculosis. It was Anna who showed her mother a picture, embroidered in yarn, and challenged her to duplicate it. So Anna Mary Robertson Moses began stitching what she called "worsted" pictures and giving them away to anyone who'd have them. When Moses complained that arthritis made it hard for her to hold a needle, her sister Celestia suggested she paint instead. In this casual manner, the career of Grandma Moses began.


Soon Moses had more paintings than she could realistically make use of. She sent some to the Cambridge country fair, along with her canned fruits and jams. "I won a prize for my fruit and jam," she sardonically noted, "but no pictures." Here Moses' painting career might have foundered. For much as she loved art, Anna Mary Robertson Moses was above all a sensible woman, and to pursue art for art's sake alone would, by and by, have come to seem a petty indulgence. But then, in 1936 or '37, Caroline Thomas, the wife of the druggist in the neighboring village of Hoosick Falls, invited Moses to contribute to a women's exchange she was organizing.


Moses' paintings sat in the drugstore window, gathering dust next to crafts and other objects created by local homemakers, for several years. Then, during Easter week of 1938, a New York City collector named Louis Caldor chanced through town. Caldor traveled regularly in connection with his job as an engineer for the New York City water department, and he was in the habit of seeking out native artistic "finds." The paintings in the drugstore window caught his eye; he asked to see more and ended up buying the whole lot. He also got the artist's name and address and set off to meet her in person.


Moses' family clearly thought Caldor was crazy when he told their Grandma he'd make her famous. And indeed, for the next few years, it seemed the family was right. Caldor brought his trove of Moses paintings to New York City and began doggedly making the rounds of museums and galleries. Even those who admired the work lost interest when they heard the artist's age. Turning 78 in 1938, Moses hardly seemed worth the effort and expense involved in mounting an exhibition; her life expectancy was such that most dealers felt they would never reap a profit on their initial investment. Still, Caldor persisted, and in 1939 he had his first limited success: the collector Sidney Janis selected three Moses paintings for inclusion in a private viewing at the Museum of Modern Art. However, this exhibition, which was open only to Museum members, had no immediate impact.


Finally, in 1940, Caldor stopped at the Galerie St. Etienne. Recently founded by Otto Kallir, a Viennese emigré, the Galerie St. Etienne specialized in modern Austrian masters such as Gustav Klimt, Oskar Kokoschka and Egon Schiele. But Kallir, like many of the pioneers who championed modernism in the pivotal decades between the two world wars, was also interested in the work of self-taught painters. In Europe, this trend had been established when Picasso "adopted" the painting toll collector Henri Rousseau, and was furthered by the published writings of the Russian-born Expressionist Vasily Kandinsky. Essentially, these artists and their various followers believed that the work of self-taught artists was purer and more original than that of trained painters. In tandem with a concerted effort to renounce academic tradition, the contemporary avant-garde looked to the example of those who, for whatever reason, had been denied formal training.


Anna Mary Robertson Moses made her public debut at the Galerie St. Etienne in October 1940. Otto Kallir had titled the exhibition "What a Farmwife Painted," thinking that the artist's name, completely unknown, did not merit attention. It was only some months later that a journalist, interviewing friends in Eagle Bridge, came upon and then popularized the local nickname "Grandma Moses." The St. Etienne exhibition, though well publicized and well attended, was only a modest success. What really got Moses' career rolling was a Thanksgiving Festival organized by Gimbels Department Store shortly after the St. Etienne show closed. A substantial group of paintings was reassembled at Gimbels, and the artist was invited to come to New York. In her little black hat and lace-collared dress, accompanied by the proprietary Caroline Thomas, Moses (perhaps remembering her experiences at the country fair) delivered a forthright public address on her jams and preserved fruits. The hardboiled New York press corps was delighted, and the legend of Grandma Moses was born.


In defiance of every precedent, Grandma Moses became a superstar. She did not do so willfully or suddenly, but she did so nonetheless. Her talk at Gimbels in 1940 brought a burst of publicity, and Moses was soon something of a local celebrity, but her renown was confined to New York State. She exhibited at a number of upstate venues and began to be besieged by vacationers seeking artistic souvenirs. For some years, Moses resisted signing a formal contract with Kallir, believing she could manage matters herself. Finally, in 1944, frustrated by the seasonal nature of her tourist-oriented business and by the difficulty collecting payment from some of her customers, she agreed to be represented exclusively by the Galerie St. Etienne and the American British Art Center, whose director, Ala Story, had also become a steady buyer of Moses' work.


The events that established Moses as a national and then international celebrity followed in quick succession. Kallir and Story immediately launched a series of traveling exhibitions that would, over the ensuing two decades, bring Moses' work to more than thirty American states and ten European nations. In 1946, Kallir edited the first monograph on the artist, Grandma Moses: American Primitive, and oversaw the licensing of the first Moses Christmas cards. Both projects proved so successful that the following year the book was reprinted and the greeting card license taken over by Hallmark. In 1949, Moses traveled to Washington to receive a special award from President Truman. The next year, a documentary film on her life, photographed by Erica Anderson, directed by Jerome Hill, and with narration by Archibald MacLeish, was nominated for an Academy Award. Her autobiography, My Life's History, was published in 1952.


The dawning age of mass communications gave the public unprecedented access to Grandma Moses and her work. In addition to traveling exhibitions, books and greeting cards, people could enjoy posters and even mural-sized reproductions, china plates, drapery fabrics and a number of other licensed Moses products. By live-remote broadcast--then a technological marvel--Moses' voice was beamed out from her home in Eagle Bridge to the larger world. A rare use of color television was made to show Moses' paintings when she was interviewed by Edward R. Murrow in 1955. Lillian Gish even portrayed the artist in one of the first televised "docu-dramas."


The rags-to-riches saga of the elderly painter captured the American imagination. Facing the harsh realities of the Cold-War era, the public took heart in a real-life tale that seemed to prove the old adage, "it's never too late." The media seemingly never tired of repeating Moses' fairy-tale story. In 1953, she was featured on the cover of Time Magazine; in 1960, Life sent noted photographer Cornell Capa to do a cover story on the artist's 100th birthday. That birthday--declared "Grandma Moses Day" by New York's governor, Nelson Rockefeller--was celebrated almost like a holiday in the nation's press. The fanfare was repeated the following year, when Moses turned 101. Everyone rejoiced at the artist's longevity. Grandma Moses passed away several months after her 101st birthday, on December 13, 1961. Her death was front page news all over America and throughout much of Europe.


1860 Anna Mary Robertson is born on September 7 in Greenwich, New York, the third of ten children of Mary Shannahan and Russell King Robertson, a farmer.


1872 Leaves home to work as “hired girl” on neighboring farm. Anna Mary will spend most of the next fifteen years in this manner, learning how to sew, cook, and keep house for various wealthier neighbors.


1870s Obtains a few years of schooling along with children of family for whom she works.


1887 On November 9, marries Thomas Salmon Moses, the “hired man” on farm where she is then employed. The couple move to Virginia, where they work as tenant farmers for a number of years until saving enough to buy their own place. Mrs. Moses contributes to family’s income by producing butter and potato chips. Gives birth to ten children, of whom five die in infancy.


1905 The family returns to upstate New York, purchasing farm in Eagle Bridge, not far from Anna Mary’s birthplace.


1909 Moses’s mother dies in February, her father in June.


1918 Paints first large picture (plate 1) on fireboard in parlor.


1920s Paints landscapes on panels of “tip-up” table and occasional pictures for relatives and friends.


1927 On January 15, Thomas Salmon Moses dies of heart attack.


1932 Goes to Bennington, Vermont, to assist daughter Anna, who is ill with tuberculosis. At Anna’s suggestion, makes first “worsted” embroidered pictures (plates 2 and 3). After Anna’s death, Moses stays on to care for her two grandchildren.


1935 Returns to her farm in Eagle Bridge, where she lives with youngest son Hugh, his wife Dorothy, and their children. Begins to paint in earnest and exhibits pictures at local events, such as fairs and charity sales. Moses later recalls receiving prizes for her preserves at the county fair, but nothing for her paintings.


1938 A display of her pictures at Thomas’s Drugstore in Hoosick Falls, New York, is discovered by Louis Caldor, a traveling engineer and amateur collector. Caldor vows to make Moses famous, but her family scoffs at the idea; he sends her her first professional artist’s paints and canvases.


1939 At Caldor’s instigation, three Moses paintings are included in show of “Contemporary Unknown American Painters” in Members’ Rooms of Museum of Modern Art in New York (October 18--November 18). Exhibition is not open to the general public and thus has little impact. Most art dealers whom Caldor approaches refuse to commit to a 79-year-old artist.


1940 Otto Kallir, owner of Galerie St. Etienne in New York, is taken with the Moses paintings Caldor shows him and mounts artist’s first one-woman show, “What a Farm Wife Painted” (October 9--31). In November, Gimbels Department Store features Moses’ work in a “Thanksgiving Festival.” She attends and captivates press and public alike.


1941 Receives New York State Prize for Old Oaken Bucket at Syracuse Museum of Fine Arts (now Everson Museum of Art), Syracuse, New York. The painting is purchased by Thomas J. Watson, founder of IBM. Celebrities such as Katherine Cornell and Cole Porter begin to collect her work.


1942 Chapter devoted to Grandma Moses in They Taught Themselves by Sydney Janis (New York: The Dial Press), and three paintings included in exhibition of same title (Marie Harriman Gallery, New York; February 9--March 7). American British Art Center, New York, presents “Anna Mary Robertson Moses: Loan Exhibition of Paintings” (December 7--22).


1944 Galerie St. Etienne cements its commitment to Moses, presenting two exhibitions of her work (“New Paintings by Grandma Moses: The Senior of the American Primitives,” in February, and “Grandma Moses,” in December).


1944 Otto Kallir organizes extensive traveling exhibition program, which over the course of the next two decades brings Moses’ work to innumerable cities throughout the United States (Alabama, California, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin).


1945 Moses is featured artist at the “Women’s International Exposition: Woman’s Life in Peacetime,” held in Madison Square Garden, New York (November 13--18).


1945-1950 Represented in every annual juried exhibition of the Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.


1946 Gains significant national exposure through publication of first Moses greeting cards and best-selling monograph, Grandma Moses, American Primitive (autobiographical notes by Grandma Moses, edited by Otto Kallir, and with an introduction by Louis Bromfield; New York: The Dryden Press). Sixteen million Grandma Moses Christmas cards sold. Moses painting featured in ad for Richard Hudnut lipstick, “Primitive Red.”


1947 Second, expanded edition of Grandma Moses, American Primitive is published (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday & Co.), and Hallmark Company takes over Moses Christmas- and greeting-card license. One-woman exhibition at Galerie St. Etienne, New York (May 17--June 14).

1948 First large color reproductions of Moses paintings produced by Arthur Jaffe Heliochrome Company, New York. Exhibition, “Ten Years Grandma Moses,” at Galerie St. Etienne, New York (Thanksgiving--Christmas).


1949 Moses’s son Hugh dies in February. Meets President Harry S Truman in May, when she travels to Washington, D.C., to receive Women’s National Press Club Award “For Outstanding Accomplishment In Art.” Simultaneous exhibition, “Paintings by Grandma Moses,” at Phillips Gallery, Washington (May 8--June 9). Receives Honorary Doctorate from Russell Sage College, Troy, New York, in June. Included in Pictorial Folk Art in America, New England to California by Alice Ford (New York and London: The Studio Publications). Riverdale Fabrics begins producing line of drapery fabrics based on Moses’ paintings, and Atlas China Company issues series of plates featuring four Moses paintings.


1950 Documentary color film produced by Jerome Hill, with narration by Archibald MacLeish and photography by Erica Anderson, nominated for Academy Award. First European Moses exhibition, sponsored by the U.S. Information Service (Vienna, Munich, Salzburg, Berne, The Hague, Paris; June--December). The artist’s birthday is celebrated in the national press for first time; Albany Institute of History and Art, Albany, New York, mounts commemorative exhibition, “Grandma Moses: Exhibition Arranged on the Occasion of Her 90th Birthday” (September 7--October 15). Included in Primitive Painters in America by Jean Lipman and Alice Winchester (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co.). Otto Kallir establishes umbrella organization, Grandma Moses Properties, to administer artist’s copyrights and trademarks; subsequent licensing program revolves around print reproductions and items of domestic use.


1951 In April, moves from her old farm to more comfortable one-story house across the road, and daughter Winona Fisher takes over running of household. Receives Honorary Doctorate from Moore Institute of Art, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in March.


1952 Publication of autobiography, My Life’s History, by Grandma Moses, edited by Otto Kallir (New York: Harper & Row/London: André Deutsch/Frankfurt am Main: Ullstein Verlag, 1957/Utrecht: A.W. Brauna & Zoon, 1958). Lillian Gish portrays artist in televised “docudrama” based on the autobiography. In December, Galerie St. Etienne issues brief memoir, Christmas, by Grandma Moses.


1953 Guest speaker at The New York Herald Tribune Forum in New York, October 20. Featured on cover of Time Magazine. Crown Potteries produces dinnerware based on the painting Home for Thanksgiving.


1954-1955 Five paintings included in “American Primitive Paintings from the 17th Century to the Present,” exhibition circulated in Europe by the Smithsonian Institution for the U.S. Information Agency (Lucerne, Vienna, Munich, Dortmund, Stockholm, Oslo, Manchester, London, Trier).


1955 Interviewed by Edward R. Murrow for “See it Now” television series, broadcast December 13. “A Tribute to Grandma Moses,” on the occasion of her 95th birthday, presented by Thomas J.Watson and the Fine Arts Department of the International Business Machines Corp., IBM Gallery, New York (November 28 --December 31). Moses travels to New York to attend opening; her birthday again gets national press coverage.


1956 Painting specially commissioned by President Eisenhower’s Cabinet is given to him on third anniversary of his inauguration. Publication of set of four color reproductions, “The Four Seasons” (Port Chester, New York: Donald Art Company).


1957 “Grandma Moses: New York Showing of an Exhibition Presented in Europe During 1955--1957,” at Galerie St. Etienne, New York (May 6--June 4).


1958 Moses’s daughter, Winona Fisher, dies on October 14. Son Forrest and his wife Mary move into house to take care of her.


1959 Included in Modern Primitives: Masters of Naïve Painting by Oto Bihalji-Merin (New York: Harry N. Abrams). Publication of portfolio of six color reproductions, “Six of My Favorite Paintings” (New York: Catalda Fine Arts).


1960 Governor Nelson A. Rockefeller proclaims artist’s 100th birthday “Grandma Moses Day” in New York State. The IBM Gallery in New York celebrates with “My Life’s History: A Loan Exhibition of Paintings by Grandma Moses” (September 12--October 6), and artist herself dances a decorous jig with her physician. Life Magazine publishes cover story, with photographs by Cornell Capa.


1960-1961 “My Life’s History,” exhibition circulated by the Smithsonian Institution (Milwaukee, Washington, D.C., Chattanooga, Baton Rouge, Seattle, Laguna Beach, Fort Worth, Winnipeg, Chicago).


1961 Grandma Moses taken to Health Center in Hoosick Falls, New York, on July 18. New York Governor Nelson A. Rockefeller again proclaims artist’s birthday “Grandma Moses Day.” Publication of The Grandma Moses Storybook, illustrated by Grandma Moses (containing stories and poems by 28 writers, edited by Nora Kramer, and with a biographical sketch by Otto Kallir; New York: Random House). Grandma Moses dies, aged 101, at Health Center on December 13 and is buried in Maple Grove Cemetery, Hoosick Falls.




1940 "What a Farm Wife Painted," Galerie St. Etienne, NY

1944 "New Paintings by Grandma Moses," Galerie St. Etienne, NY

1944-56 Traveling exhibitions: Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Washington DC, Montana, Virginia, California, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Texas, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Chicago, North Carolina, Kansas, Maryland, Connecticut, Alabama, Tennessee, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Nebraska, Oklahoma, Vermont, Delaware, Louisiana, Indiana, Florida, Washington State, NY State, South Carolina

1949 "Paintings by Grandma Moses," Phillips Collection, Washington

1950 "Grandma Moses: 50 Paintings"; European traveling exhibition: Vienna, Munich, Salzburg, Bern, the Hague, Paris

1955 "A Tribute to Grandma Moses," IBM Gallery, NY

1955-57 European traveling exhibition: Bremen, Stuttgart, Cologne, Hamburg, London, Oslo, Aberdeen, Edinburgh, Glasgow

1960 "My Life's History," IBM Gallery, NY; Milwaukee, Washington DC, Chattanooga, Baton Rouge, Seattle, Laguna Beach, Fort Worth, Winnipeg

1962 "Grandma Moses: Memorial Exhibition," Galerie St. Etienne, NY

1963-64 "A Life's History in 40 Pictures"; European traveling exhibition: Vienna, Paris, Bremen, Hamburg, Hameln, Fulda, Düsseldorf, Darmstadt, Mannheim, Berlin, Frankfurt, Oslo, Stockholm, Helsinki, Göteborg, Copenhagen, Moscow

1968-Present "The Grandma Moses Gallery" (permanent installation), Bennington Museum, Vermont

1969 "Art and Life of Grandma Moses, Gallery of Modern Art, NY

1979 "Grandma Moses," National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC

1982-83 "Grandma Moses: The Artist Behind the Myth," American traveling exhibition: Galerie St. Etienne; Danforth Museum, Framingham, Massachusetts; NY State Museum, Albany

1984 "The World of Grandma Moses," American traveling exhibition: Museum of American Folk Art ; Baltimore Museum of Art; Norton Gallery Cheekwood Fine Arts Center, Nashville; Joslyn Art Museum, Omaha; Lakeview Museum of Art, Peoria

1987 "Grandma Moses," Japanese traveling exhibition: Isetan Museum, Tokyo; Daimaru Museum, Osaka

1990 "Grandma Moses," Japanese traveling exhibition: Isetan Museum, Tokyo; Daimaru Museum, Osaka; Daimaru Museum, Kyoto; Funabashi Art Forum, Funabashi; Takashimaya Museum, Yokohama

1995 "Grandma Moses," Japanese traveling exhibition: Daimaru Museum, Osaka; Yasuda Kasai Museum, Tokyo; Shimonoseki Museum, Yamaguchi; Sogo Museum, China

1996 "Grandma Moses: Pictures from the Past," Fort Lauderdale Museum of Art

2001-02 "Grandma Moses in the 21st Century," American traveling exhibition: National Museum of Women in the Arts, Washington DC; San Diego Museum of Art, CA; Orlando Museum of Art, FL; Gilcrease Museum, Tulsa, OK; Columbus Museum of Art, OH; Portland Art Museum, OR

2002 "Grandma Moses, Reflections of America," Galerie St. Etienne, NY

2003-04 "Grandma Moses in the 21st Century," The Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art, CT

2005 "Grandma Moses," Japanese traveling exhibition: Bunkamura Museum, Tokyo; Daimaru Museum, Kyoto; Daimaru Museum, Sapporo

2006-08 "Grandma Moses: Grandmother to the Nation," traveling exhibition: Fenimore Art Museum, Cooperstown NY; Reynolda House Museum, Winston-Salem NC; Hunter Museum, Chattanooga TN; Crocker Art Museum, Sacramento CA; Ringling Museum, Sarasota FL.




1939 "Contemporary Unknown Painters," Museum of Modern Art, NY

1954-55 "American Primitive Painting," European traveling exhibition: Lucerne, Vienna, Munich, Dortmund, Stockholm, Oslo, Manchester, London, Trier

1964 "Der Lusthof der Naïven," European traveling exhibition: Museum Boymans van Beuningen, Rotterdam; Musée National d'Art Moderne, Paris

1966 "1st Triennial of Insitic Art," Slovenska, Národná Galéria, Bratislava

1974-75 "Die Kunst der Naïven," Haus der Kunst, Munich; Kunsthaus, Zurich

1981-82 "The Folk Art Tradition," Galerie St. Etienne, NY

1989 "Masters of Naive Art," Japanese traveling exhibition: Daimaru Museum, Kyoto, Japan; Yamagataya Art Gallery, Yamagataya; Daimaru Art Gallery, Hakata; Daimaru Art Gallery, Tokyo

1998-99 "Self-Taught Artists of the 20th Century," American traveling exhibition: Philadelphia Museum of Art; High Museum, Atlanta; Amon Carter Museum, Forth Worth; Memorial Art Gallery, Rochester; Wexner Center, Columbus




1946-47 GRANDMA MOSES: AMERICAN PRIMITIVE. Edited by Otto Kallir. Doubleday & Co., New York.

1952 GRANDMA MOSES: MY LIFE'S HISTORY. Edited by Otto Kallir. Harper & Row, New York.

1961 THE GRANDMA MOSES STORYBOOK. Edited by Nora Kramer. Random House, New York.

1962 THE NIGHT BEFORE CHRISTMAS by Clement C. Moore. Random House, New York.

1971 BAREFOOT IN THE GRASS: THE STORY OF GRANDMA MOSES by William H. Armstrong. Doubleday & Co., Garden City, New York.

1972-75 GRANDMA MOSES. By Otto Kallir. Harry N. Abrams, (1972); New American Library (1975).

1982 GRANDMA MOSES: THE ARTIST BEHIND THE MYTH. By Jane Kallir. Clarkson N. Potter, New York.

1985 THE GRANDMA MOSES AMERICAN SONGBOOK edited by Dan Fox. Henry N. Abrams.

1989 GRANDMA MOSES: PAINTER. By Tom Biracree. Chelsea House Publishers, New York.

1991 GRANDMA MOSES. By Margot Cleary. Crescent Books.

1996 GRANDMA MOSES: AN AMERICAN ORIGINAL. By William C. Ketchum. Smithmark Publishers, New York.

1997 GRANDMA MOSES: 25 MASTERWORKS. By Jane Kallir. Harry N. Abrams, New York.

2000 THE YEAR WITH GRANDMA MOSES: by W. Nikola-Lisa. Henry Holt and Company, New York.

2001 THE ESSENTIAL GRANDMA MOSES. By Jane Kallir. Harry N. Abrams, NY.

2001 GRANDMA MOSES IN THE 21ST CENTURY. By Jane Kallir. Art Services International, Virginia.

2006 DESIGNS IN THE HEART: THE HOMEMADE ART OF GRANDMA MOSES. By Karal Ann Marling. Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA.